The Common Core mathematics standards, like the Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (2000) from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), include both content and process standards. Content standards include the mathematical knowledge and skills students should learn; process standards specify the mathematical ways of thinking students should develop while learning mathematics content. In the Common Core standards, the process standards are described as eight Common Core Mathematical Practices (see Figure 1) that build on the NCTM process standards (communication, representation, reasoning and proof, connections, and problem solving) and the National Research Council’s five strands of mathematical proficiency (procedural fluency, conceptual understanding, strategic competence, adaptive reasoning, and productive disposition).
ALISON YIN/EDSOURCEIn data science classes, students write computer programs to help analyze large sets of data. High school math, and algebra, in