These evidence-based instructional strategiescan lead to deeper mathematical conversationsin upper elementary school classrooms.
The mathematical habits that educators should be fostering in mathematics classrooms throughout K–grade 12 education. That argumentation and discourse are important components of developing mathematically proficient students has been well established, and this fits well with SMP 3, which states that students will viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others (CCSSI 2010, p. 6). Given that this practice is essential, do teachers effectively incorporate mathematical argumentation into their upper elementary-level lessons? What does this practice look like, and what can teachers expect from students who have had minimal experience with this form of instruction? How do teachers strategically embed argumentation into the appropriate mathematical content? We address these questions as we present evidence-based instructional strategies for promoting argumentation.